Trends Identified

High-sensitivity biosensors
Highly sensitive biosensors to measure physical and physiological parameters of the body will be able to diagnose and identify deviations and faults in the functioning of various organs and physiological systems in the body based on changes in objective operational indicators (physical, chemical, etc.) using instrument based or laboratory research methods. Multi­component measurement systems will appear which will be integrated with analytical programmes based on chemometric approaches and artificial intelligence drawing together several diagnostic and visualisation technologies.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Software to analyse statistical macromolecular markers
Software systems to analyse static (contextual) macromolecular markers will make it possible to carry out more in-depth genetic diagnostics (primarily for hereditary and orphan diseases). The expansion of the market for this product group will contribute to minimising the analytical processes in clinical laboratories and the emergence of specific personalised approaches to diagnostics. New systems which do not require expensive equipment and components could successfully compete with mass spectrometers and other modern analytical techniques.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Preparations based on human cell cultivation products to stimulate regeneration processes
The use of preparations based on cell cultivations stimulating regeneration processes will make it possible to overcome diseases which were previously seen as incurable through the potential for a patient to reproduce their own cells or have cells introduced into the body. By varying the cell cultivation conditions (for example, by placing them in a hypoxic environment), it is possible to change the relationship of factors according to the required results (stimulating or suppressing angiogenesis, apoptosis and the proliferation of receptor cells).
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Targeted drug delivery components and systems
Targeted drug delivery components and systems will increase the effectiveness of treatments through the targeted conveyance of medicinal substances directly to the target organ (tissue). The use of these systems will help to reduce the level of toxicity and side effects of drugs, as well as making them most cost-effective. In the long-term, there is expected to be “smart” medicines capable of reacting both to internal conditions and to changes in the state of the patient’s body. The systems being developed will find application in treatments for various types of socially significant diseases: oncological, infectious, chronic inflammatory, mental illnesses, hormonal disorders, etc.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Genetic passport
An important step for the transition to predictive and personalised medicine is the wide­ spread dissemination of genetic passports containing data from a DNA analysis of the individual. Based on the genetic information provided, a doctor can not only correctly put forward a diagnosis and select the most appropriate treatment, but also – prior to revealing the real picture of the pathological process – to warn of any possible developments of a particular disease with a view to providing timely prophylaxis or treatment.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Drugs based on living cells
The introduction of medicines based on living cells (autologous, donor, primary, cultivated, differentiated and modified) will form a basis for cell therapy and tissue engineering for transplanting stem cells into certain parts of the body, as well as equivalents engineered on the basis of stem cells, which could be able to restore the structure and functions of damaged tissues and organs. Technologies to obtain stem cells from patient tissues will make it possible to make treatment materials within a matter of hours. The techniques used to selectively cultivate and differentiate this type of cell will allow for rapid and effective treatments for various pathologies. A new and fundamental property of these technologies is the complete compatibility of the stem cells taken from the patient’s own differentiated tissues with the patient’s body. In this regard, it is possible to rule out infections: the cells have reduced (compared with embryonic) capabilities to differentiate into unwanted directions.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
New materials to stimulate regeneration, activity and cytodifferentiation in the body
New materials to stimulate the regeneration, activity and differentiation of cells in the body offer the potential to cure pathologies in the musculoskeletal system, wounds of various aetiology, cardio­vascular diseases, etc. Innovative techniques are based on bioengineering “grafting” technologies in this field and are required, with the necessary speed, to regenerate cells and to subsequently form various tissues and organs directly in the body on the basis of those cells. At the end of the prescribed timeframe, the biodegradable polymer materials leave the body, breaking down with natural metabolic products. New technologies will help to speed up the healing of all types of tissue, prevent the formation of adhesions, and reduce the number of complications after operations, thus providing a significant increase in patients’ quality of life.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Bioreplaceable materials
The expected social effect of bioreplaceable materials for orthopaedics, replicating the architectonics of bone tissues and making it possible to heal bone defects, lies in the reduced level of disability in the population, the reduction in periods of incapacity, and the reduction in the length of hospitalisation and rehabilitation periods. Together with this, there is expected to be a fall in the risk of repeated prosthesis replacements. Within the existing technological base, a pool of innovative techniques is being developed which could offer radical medical care to restore bone tissue.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
"Brain - computer" interfaces to transfer a signal to specific patterns of neurons
In the long-term, there is expected to be “brain-computer interfaces” which are systems to transfer electronic impulses from the body’s nervous system to an electronic device and back. This achievement would find wide application in neuroprosthesis, in particular when developing bionic sensory organs. The development of this field will subsequently lead to the creation of systems which are a functional part of the human intellect (exocortex) to further improve cognitive processes.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Sensors to analyse the make-up of various environments
Nanostructured materials and coatings can be applied to sensors to analyse the make-up of various environments so as to increase their responsiveness (by reducing the diffusion time in the sensitive layer) and increase sensitivity (by increasing the specific surface). Nanotechnologies can be used to develop new types of sensitive materials to miniature multi-sensor matrices (sensors) embedded in consumer electronics and clothing, and can also be placed in production and residential buildings.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation