Trends Identified

Physical value sensors based on nanomaterials
Physical value sensors based on nanomaterials could be used in special measuring devices. They comprise two sub-groups of innovative products: 1 electromagnetic wave measurement sensors: hard x-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, radio emissions, etc.; 2 sensors designed to measure linear and angular displacement (produced using materials made from nanotubes with zero transverse deformation coefficient), acceleration (based on the tunnel effect with sensitive nanoelements), and terahertz radiation using planar nanostructures (based on ultra-thin metal films). This sub-group also includes optical nanosensors for mechanical stress (based on elastic inverted photon crystals), etc.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Nanostructured materials and reagents for water purification processes
In the short term we can expect to see the emergence of nanostructured materials and reagents for water purification processes (water treatment, raw food processing). With the transition to these technologies, the problems of drinking water supplies and efficient purification of household and industrial sewerage will largely be solved, in particular by using various types of hybrid membranes with embedded nanoparticles. It is possible to significantly intensify water purification processes using membranes with an asymmetric (gradient) distribution of nano-particles by restructuring membrane pore and channel structures. Such an effect can occur upon implementation of electromembrane technologies, allowing for an increase in the electro-catalytic activity of particles in a water dissociation reaction which enables higher speed electrodialysis purification of water in extreme currents. Ion-exchange and membrane materials containing nanoparticles of metals are used for further removal of dissolved oxygen from water, which is extremely important for a number of processes in today’s electronics industry. Ion-exchange and filter membranes will be widely used in food production and processing.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Nanostructured bio-compatible materials
In the near future we can expect active development in technology to create nanostructured bio-compatible materials for medical use, primarily in two areas: 1 developing materials to manufacture implants and substitutes for various tissues (for example, oxide or phosphate bio-coatings are applied to strong and relatively light titanium implants to prevent rejection by living tissues); 2 the creation of materials with properties and structures similar to those found in the human body. One example is bone implants with a porous structure based on calcium phosphate. Ideally, medical materials should complement natural fabrics. With the emergence of nanostructured bio-compatible and bioresorbable implants, the structure of the prostheses and implants market, together with the principles and approaches to prosthetics, have changed significantly. The introduction of new technologies will make it possible to increase the active life of humans, reduce population disabilities, and improve people’s quality of life.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Drug delivery systems
The use of drug delivery systems will radically increase the effectiveness of drug treatments. Highly-porous nanoparticles or nanocapsules could be used as drug carriers. Targeted delivery systems are contributing to cost-effective spending on medicinal substances and reductions in their toxicity, as opposed to significantly levelling out their side effects.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
New types of light and high-strength materials
New types of light and high-strength materials primarily relate to products based on carbon fibres. Their most important characteristics (high elastic and strength qualities, lightness, low friction coefficient, resistance to atmospheric effects and chemical reagents) and special features of their structure make it possible to combine carbon fibre materials with other types of fibres: boric, glass, and aramid. As a result, light and strong products can be created, combining the competitive advantages of two source materials. Such hybrid com- posites have already found application in the aerospace sector and sporting equipment industry. Other materials which meet the criteria of lightness and high strength can be created on the basis of nanostructured alloys or aluminium, titanium and several other metals. The most in demand will be the following products: high-strength mixtures based on nanostructured structural polymers;_x000B_polymer composite materials with the addition of small quantities of carbon nanoparticles; stronger composite materials based on nanomaterials using wood; nanostructured composite materials based on light metals – Al, Ti, Mg – containing nanofibres made from super-high-molecular polyethylene, etc._x000B_
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
New materials for chemical sources of electrical current
Many research groups are actively developing technologies relating to nanostructured materials for chemical sources of electrical current. Their use will make it possible to increase the specific capacity of electrodes, increasing the capacity of power sources and allowing for their miniaturisation and safety. An important parameter is also the increasing operating temperatures of these energy sources. Among the most promising chemical sources of electrical current are the following: lithium-ion batteries; fuel cells.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Fuel cells, catalysts for innovative energy sources
Fuel cells and catalysts for innovative energy sources will be able to use the large number of nanotechnological materials used to design various types of energy sources. In particular, these include: hybrid nanostructured proton-conducting membranes including nanoparticles which improve their transmission properties, and nano-scale catalysts based on platinum and transition metals (including “core in the shell” type catalysts) used to create fuel cells; nano-scale cathode materials with mixed electron-ion conductivity and nanostructured anode materials based on various forms of silicon and carbon, from which lithium-ion batteries are formed; There will also be developed catalysts to produce innovative energy sources and chemical products many of which are already used in industrial production. efficient nano-scale catalysts for deep processing of oil and gas products; nano-scale catalysts for conversion of natural gas and associated gases into liquid petroleum, hydrogen and valuable organic products; nano-sized catalysts for processing renewable raw materials (biogas and biomass) into valuable organic products; a wide range of nano-sized catalysts for the production of innovative energy sources and processing of natural ones;
nano-scale granular membranes based on complex oxides with a perovskite, spinel and fluorite structure, used in processes to partially oxidise methane and associated gases into synthesis gas at low temperatures, or nano-scale catalysts to convert biomass products into synthesis gas.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Radiating elements based on nano-scale heterostructures
Broad prospects for the development of nanotechnologies are offered by radiating elements based on nano-scale heterostructures, including lasers and organic light emitting diodes. Organic light emitting diodes, one of the most cost-effective sources of light, are renowned for their unique slim design and high flexibility, offering a broad range of the light spectrum and light stream geometries to which humans are readily accustomed. They can be manufactured in any form, almost at will, and “fit” into working and residential premises of different scales. Lasers have already been widely used in medicine, mechanical engineering, construction and land surveying following the development of the printed circuit board and integrated boards. They are used to detect various substances (including weapons and explosives), for heating through thermonuclear synthesis and in astronomy.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Heat-resistant nanostructured composite, ceramic and metallic materials
Heat-resistant nanostructured composite, ceramic and metallic materials have considerable potential for application in numerous fields (in particular the aeronautical industry and electrical energy sector) thanks to their resistance to chemical decomposition at high temperatures. Among this line of innovative products, the following are notable:
carbon-carbon construction materials with maximum operating temperatures of up to 1650°C;
light high-strength laminated composite metal-intermetallic materials suitable for use in high temperatures and at critical temperature gradients;
heat-resistant composite coatings hardened with nano-scale silicides making it possible to increase the temperature and operating life of products, as well as their reliability by 1.5 times;
carbon fibre composites with metallic matrices to produce heat-resistant construction items with a certain nanostructure.
Nanostructured composite materials with special properties (including conductiveness, magnetism and optical properties), intended to transfer and transform electrical currents, make up a large group of innovative products. The main applications for this type of materials are being developed to transfer high power currents and to miniaturise devices.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Nanostructured composite materials with special properties (including conductive, magnetic and optical)
Nanostructured composite materials with special optical properties (including photon crystals) will be particularly in demand by 2030. In the medium term we can expect to see the use of systems with sensory properties, for example, the ability to change the range of intensity of emitted light in conjunction with certain reagents. There may significant improvements in key functional parameters of fibre-optic communications lines providing safely screened multichannel methods to transfer data – speed and quality of the transfer – by using nanostructured materials, on the one hand, with extremely high levels of immunity to interference and, on the other hand, which are not a source of radiation. The application of photon crystal and micro-structured fibres opens up new opportunities to use fibre-optics in physical value sensors.
2016
Russia 2030: science and technology foresight
Russia, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation